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A total of 117 international-pharmaceutical-firm-invested pharmaceutical companies (IPFIPCs) in Mainland China were defined as the population for the research, based on four major sources: l) the Catalogue of Chinese Pharmaceutical Enterprises with Foreign Investment (published by the China Centre for Pharmaceutical International Exchange (CCPIE, 1995), an agency of State Pharmaceutical Administration of China); 2) the Market Reports of National Trade Data Bank of the United States of America (NTDB, 1996); 3) MIMS Asia (MIMS, 1998); and 4) the report of Shanghai Pharmaceutical (Group) Corporation (SPGC, 1999).
The NER consists of Beijing and Tianjin municipalities, Liaoning, Shandong and Hebei provinces (CCPIE, 1995; NTDB, 1996; MIMS, 1998; SPGC, 1999).
Second, most of the pharmaceutical companies with foreign investment in China are firms that have investment by international non-pharmaceutical firms (CCPIE, 1995; MIMS, 1998).
Both the CIE and the CCPIE work on the basis of consensus.
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