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"Requests and Apologies: A CrossCultural Study of Speech Act Realization Patterns (CCSARP)." Applied Linguistics 5: 196-213.
The original CCSARP framework developed by Blum-Kulka et al.
Early SL studies using the CCSARP framework showed that in highly face-threatening requests, learners of lower proficiency, unlike native speakers, tend to use direct strategies due to their lack of linguistic resources, while those with higher proficiency use more conventionally indirect requests, mitigated expressions, and supportive moves, thus approximating NS patterns (e.g., Rose, 2000; Takahashi, 1996; Trosborg, 1995).
In the CCSARP, instances of performatives were also found for English: "I am asking you to shut up" (Blum Kulka et al.
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- Ccs Message Transport
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- Ccs Network Control