states' duty to ensure that applicable federal and state tax and labor laws and regulations are followed and CD-PAS programs and funding are properly administered,
states' desire not to be the employer of record of CD-PAS attendants, and
consumers with disabilities and chronic conditions in many state and Medic-aid-funded CD-PAS programs can now obtain the intermediary services they need to manage their own personal assistance services.
This is the most cost efficient method of administering a CD-PAS program and provides consumers with the highest level of consumer direction.
This ISO model may provide supportive services to consumers, such as skills and self-advocacy training, assistance with criminal background checks, development of emergency backup service plans, and maintenance of an attendant registry that assists consumers in performing the employment-related administrative and supervisory tasks associated with their CD-PAS.
These are some of the questions an ASPE-sponsored study of 23 CD-PAS programs in 11 states sought to answer.
Individuals meeting the eligibility criteria to receive consumer-directed PAS are removed from the waiting list and entered into the CD-PAS program based on certain risk-based criteria.
The NRH-RC evaluation team was interested in determining the relationship between the receipt of CD-PAS and a variety of outcomes categories through a comparison of the PAS and waiting list groups.
After controlling for the fact that the PAS group was more severely disabled and in poorer health than those on the waiting list, it was found that those receiving CD-PAS had significantly greater feelings of control over their lives than those not receiving consumer-directed services.
In the first round of the survey, 22 percent of CD-PAS recipients were employed, compared to 11 percent of those on the waiting list, despite the fact that those in the PAS group tended to have more severe disabilities and to be in poorer health.
On 14 of the 16 individual items, CD-PAS recipients were more likely to report being highly satisfied than the comparison group.
In sum, the results of the NRH-RC evaluation of Virginia's CD-PAS program suggest that consumer-direction in the delivery of personal assistance services is related to positive outcomes.