The SCT and CDART were established by the same panel of five evaluators, ensuring that the items were properly constructed and relevant to the image formation of eye learning materials which students received.
The CDART was developed to measure the degree of students' analogical reasoning involving image formation of the eye conceptions (Appendix 3), which required students to select the correct scientific conceptions and use their analogical reasoning in the first and second tier of the question, respectively.
Multivariate analysis of Concept Dependent Analogical Reasoning Test (CDART)
However, there was no statistically significant difference between condition 2 and condition 3 in terms of their post- and retention- CDART (Wilk's [LAMBDA] = 0.97, [F.sub.(2,119)] = 2.15, p = .121).
Results also showed that the best predictor for retention-SCT scores was pre- CDART followed by pre-SRT scores.