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CDC2Cell-Division Cycle 2
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As seen in Figure 3(a), SOX2 overexpression significantly upregulated the mRNA expression of the ANAPC2, ABL-1, CDC2, CDK4, and CDK6 genes.
Hellman et al., "Mitotic reorganization of the intermediate filament protein nestin involves phosphorylation by cdc2 kinase," The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
Li et al., "Oxidative stress-induced DNA damage of mouse zygotes triggers G2/M checkpoint and phosphorylates Cdc25 and Cdc2," Cell Stress & Chaperones, vol.
In human melanoma SK-MEL-28 cells, dihydromyricetin promotes the expression of p21 and p53 and attenuates the expression of cdc2, p-cdc-2, and cdc25A, causing cell cycle arrest in G1/S phase.
Phellopterin, as well as bergapten, byakangelicin, xanthotoxin, and neobyakangelicin, showed antiproliferative activity of B16F10 melanoma cells and causes G2/M arrest through an increase in the level of Chkl phosphorylation and decrease in the level of cdc2 (Tyr 161) phosphorylation (Maho et al.
The hyper-phosphorylated pRB is unable to sequester E2F transcription factors, which then get released and available for the transcription of all the required genes for cell cycle regulation, particularly Cyclin E gene product that directly bind with cdc2 and rapidly starts DNA replication (Dyer and Cepko, 2001;.
Bonni, "Cdc2 phosphorylation of BAD links the cell cycle to the cell death machinery," Molecular Cell, vol.
GSK3, PKC, and PKA showed maximum involvement in phosphorylation while other kinases like PKG, p38MAPK, cdk5, CKII, cdc2, ATM, and CKI also showed potential for phosphorylation of many Ser and Thr residues.
Third, a recent study on phosphoproteome of hES cells during differentiation revealed that CDK2 and Cdc2 activities were central in promoting pluripotency and self-renewal [19].
It is worth mentioning that, in addition to AuroraA, the G2/M specific transcription of different genes such as cyclin A, cdc25C, cdc2, polo-like kinase, and others is regulated by similar tandem repression elements [6-9].
Chromosomal mapping of members of the cdc2 family of protein kinases, cdk3, cdk6, PISSLRE, and PITALRE, and a cdk inhibitor, p27Kip1, to regions involved in human cancer.