The primers and PCR conditions used were previously described: ALS1 and ALS3 , HWP1 , SAP1 , SAP4-SAP6 , LIP1-LIP10 and PLB1-PLB2 , and CDR1 and MDR1  (Table 1).
In nearly all of the isolates, ALS1, HWP1, SAP4-SAP6, LIP1-LIP10, PLB1, and PLB2 were expressed after infection of the cell line A431, whereas CDR1 was expressed in 20 (51.
Fourteen distinct expression patterns of ALS, HWP1, SAP, PLB, LIP, and CDR1 were identified (Table 5).
9% (n = 37) of the strains (Table 3), whereas CDR1 was found in only 66.
In this study, we identified 14 distinct expression patterns of ALS, HWP1, SAP, LIP, PLB, and CDR1 in A431 cells infected in vitro with strains of C.
The azole-resistant strain (12-99, hereafter RCa) overexpresses the transporter genes CDR1
, CDR2 and MDR1, whereas the sensitive strain (2-76, hereafter SCa) has a basal expression of these genes (White et al.
The prevalence of a common point mutation, previously identified in the CDR1 gene of some ITS genotype 1 isolates, was determined for avian and human C.
This suggestion is supported by the observation that 2/3 isolates (AV5 and AV6) obtained in Dublin belonged to the same subpopulation (defined by MLST, CDR1, and MTL loci) as isolates obtained from Great Saltee Island, which is 150 km from Dublin.
In the case of Italy, we further investigated the significance of the CDR1 terms at lags one through four, which we found insignificant and removed from the estimated model of real GDP growth.
Meanwhile for Italy, we see that the CDR1 term has a positive coefficient, though this term is lagged five periods.
The growth models for Germany do not show this bifurcation into models involving only CDR1 or only CDR2.
Consequently, we present the additional results for Germany in Table VI without the coefficients on CDR1 and CDR2 constrained to equality, and we compute the associated impulse response functions.