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(54) Chalifour, supra note 52 at 269, citing Canadian Wildlife Federation Inc v Canada (Minister of the Environment) (1989), 31 FTR 1, 4 CELR
(NS) 201 (FCTD).
(25) Voir Bellefleur c Quebec (PG),  RJQ 2320, 57 CAQ 81; Gauthier c Brassard, 1999 CanLII 13862, AZ-50065738 (Azimut) (CA Qc); Coalition des citoyens et citoyennes du Val St-Francois c Quebec (PG),  RJQ 511 (disponible sur CanLII) (CS); Conseil regional de l'environnement de Montreal c Quebec (PG), 2008 QCCS 1041 (disponible sur CanLII) [CREM]; Centre quebecois du droit de l'environnement c Transcanada Pipelines liee, 2016 QCCS 903, 1 CELR
See also Comite d'environnement de la Baie Inc v Societe d'electrolyse et de chimie Alean Ltee,  RJQ 655 at 661, 6 CELR
(NS) 150 (CA) [Comite d'environnement de la Baie],
(43.) The Honourable Todd L Archibald, Kenneth E Jull & Kent W Roach, Regulatory and Corporate Liability: From Due Diligence to Risk Management (Toronto: Canada Law Book, 2004) (loose-leaf updated 2014, release 22), ch 12 at 37, citing R v Panarctic Oils Ltd, 12 CELR
29,  NWTR 47, sentencing reasons at 12 CELR
80 (Terr Ct) [cited to CELR].
(81) McClusky v British Columbia (Assistant Regional Water Manager),  BCWLD 5503, 16 CELR
(3d) 76 at para 8 (EAB).
(75) Drennan v Ontario (Ministry of the Environment) (2014), 85 CELR
(3d) 57 at para 213, 2014 CarswellOnt 1695 (WL Can) (Ont ERT) [emphasis added],
(109) Gitxaala Nation v Canada, 2016 FCA 187, 1 CELR
(4th) 183 (Memorandum of Fact and Law of the Respondents Northern Gateway Pipelines Inc & Northern Gateway Pipelines Limited Partnership at para 71).
Nova Scotia (Attorney General) v Ultramar Canada Inc,  3 FC 713, 127DLR(4th) 517;Sierra Club of Canada v Canada (Minister of Finance),  2 FCR 211, 13 Admin LR (3d) 280; Mining Watch Canada v Canada (Minister of Fisheries and Oceans), 2007 FC 955, 33 CELR
Compare the approach of the Court in Ontario (Ministry of Labour and Ministry of the Environment) v Sunrise Propane Energy Group Inc, 2013 ONCJ 358 at paras 363-68, 77 CELR
(3d) 1, in which it was held that, in the case of an inherently dangerous activity, a successful due diligence defence must demonstrate that a preventative system was in place to guard against harm, whether or not it was possible to predict the exact manner in which the harm would occur.
The Umbrella Final Agreement does not itself create rights and obligations for the parties: White River First Nation v Yukon Government, 2013 YKSC 66 at para 9,79 CELR
Accurate Industrial Waste Ltd ((1982), 11 CELR
172 (available on WL Can) (Ont Prov Ct) [Accurate Industrial Waste]), necessity is invoked against an absolute liability offence in an environmental matter.