To translate the CEQS into Spanish we used one of the methods most utilised in the area of investigation (parallel back-translation) where two professional translators translated their version of the scale from English to Spanish and another two translators carried out the Spanish-English translation without seeing the original version of the questionnaire.
The CEQS is defined by five factors (effort, ability, preparation, persistence and unity) each consisting of four items making a total twenty items.
We decided to use the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ; Carron, Widmeyer, & Brawley, 1985) in the Spanish version (Balaguer, Castillo, Moreno, Garrigues, & Soriano, 2004), which is very similar to the recent Spanish adaptation (Iturbide, Elosua, & Yanes, 2010) because of its similarity with the CEQS in its structure, its multidimensional character and its nature as a group construct.
We carried out a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the CEQS to validate the construct using the method of maximum likelihood with the program AMOS 7.0.
This analysis was carried out for both the CEQS and the GEQ scales.