And when he joined the DAP, he invited me to lunch a number of times at his office with Temi, who had been active in the CESDP
since it was first introduced in the early 1970s.
Across the thirteen candidate countries, the level of support is similar - 64% in favour of CFSP, and 71% in favour of CESDP
(and 67% and 77% in just the ten acceding states).
The General Affairs Council on May 13 (see separate story in this Section) will be devoting some of its attention to defence matters, as the Spanish Presidency attempts to tie down more of the detail of the EU's still-nascent Common European Security and Defence Policy (CESDP
However, the Commission was bringing ten Member States to court for improper application of common tariffs while "some progress" had been made towards technical solutions to the transfers problem.Common standards.Mr Liikanen said standardisation was essential to boost competitiveness and efficiency in Europe's arms industry and that a competitive European arms industry "is vital to the credibility" of the CESDP
. "When in place", he said, the European Standardisation Organisation's Handbook of Defence Standards and Procedures would improve interoperability, harmonisation and cost efficiency.
Even before CESDP
has become a reality, the EU is already the largest provider in the world of development assistance and humanitarian aid, the countries of the European Union provide 70% of the troops keeping the peace in Kosovo and Bosnia, and European forces contribute to every one of the UN's 15 peace-keeping operations.NATO candidates prepare.Meanwhile, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia met in Tallinn on 2 July to discuss their prospects of joining NATO, in the light of growing expectations that the Alliance will issue further invitations at its Prague Summit in 2002.
One of the numerous shadows currently darkening prospects for evolution of the CESDP
is the concern on the part of the military in the Member States and in NATO over confidentiality in the European Union institutions.
But he did at least essay another definition of defence policy, in what is becoming a concerted EU attempt to escape the difficulties created by the term "defence" and focus instead on the concept of the Rapid Reaction Force foreseen in CESDP
. "Misunderstandings arose in part because some European visionaries like to imagine that the RRF is an acorn that could one day grow into an alternative to NATO or even a replacement for it.
Quoting Lena Hjelm-Wallen, "We are a parliamentary Government and the foundation of that Government is the tax vote passed by the members of Sweden's Parliament; a transfer of sovereignty in the area of taxation is therefore out of the question."Defence and diplomacy.The Swedish Presidency is approaching with great caution the dossiers dealing with Common Foreign and Security Ppolicy (CFSP), and even to a greater extent, matters dealing with the new Common European Security and Defence Policy (CESDP
Its scope was scaled down by an autonomous Council Decision (2000/527/EC) taken on 14 August with the aim of scrapping the public register of classified documents ("top secret", "secret" and "confidential") on the Common European Security and Defence Policy (CESDP
And that is why, he concluded, Russia is following with great interest the EU's evolving CFSP and CESDP
: "They are fine as objectives, as long as they do not create new dividing lines in Europe".
EU Ambassadors have moved to tighten up access to Common European Security and Defence Policy (CESDP