CEWAFChemically Enhanced Water Accommodated Fraction
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Incubation of spermatozoa with concentrations of dispersant and CEWAF higher than 10 mg/l and 14.24 [micro]g/1 [tPAH.sub.50], respectively, resulted in a statistically significant decrease of fertilization success.
In the range of concentrations tested, CEWAF and HEWAF showed no effect on spermatozoa viability; however, dispersant at the highest dose tested decreased spermatozoa viability (Fig.
All concentrations of CEWAF induced a decrease of spermatozoa MMP, and incubation of spermatozoa with concentrations of HEWAF at 36.94 pg/1 [tPAH.sub.50] and above also resulted in a statistically significant decrease of MMP, in a dose-dependent manner (Fig.
The lowest concentrations of dispersant and CEWAF resulted in a 50% decrease of ROS production.
The CEWAF also induced an increase of acrosome-associated fluorescence with concentration of 14.24 and 26.14 [micro]g/1 [tPAH.sub.50] (Fig.
While CEWAF at 5/50 (dispersant/ oil) mg/l (14.24 [micro]g/l [tPAH.sub.50]) negatively impacted spermatozoa fertilization success, no change in this parameter was observed with 5 mg/l dispersant.
ABSTRACT A series of acute and sublethal experiments were conducted to examine the potential effects of exposure to water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of Macondo Canyon 252 crude oil and chemically enhanced (Corexit 9500A dispersant) water-accommodated fractions (CEWAFs) on embryogenesis, larval development, growth, and survival of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica.
Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of physically weathered oil and chemically enhanced water-accommodated fractions (CEWAFs; 1:10 ratio) were prepared in 2-L flasks.
Fertilization was reduced significantly ([F.sub.15,64] = 7.86, P < 0.0001) by exposure to CEWAFs (100 mg/L), whereas exposure to WAFs had no impact on fertilization success (Fig.
Fewer D-stage larvae developed after exposure of trochophores to CEWAFs (12.5 mg/L) or WAFs (200 mg/L; [F.sub.15,64] = 24.91, P < 0.0001) than controls (Fig.
Exposure to CEWAFS [greater than or equal to] 100 mg/L resulted in a significantly higher percent of abnormal D-stage larvae ([F.sub.5,24] = 4.41, P < 0.0072).
Exposure to CEWAFs had a significant effect on survival of D-stage and eyed larvae (178 mg/L and 82 mg/[L.sup.-1], L[C.sub.50], 24 h; 44 mg/L L[C.sub.50], 48 h), whereas exposure to WAFs affected D-stage larvae only (Table 1).