CEWAFChemically Enhanced Water Accommodated Fraction
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Incubation of spermatozoa with concentrations of dispersant and CEWAF higher than 10 mg/l and 14.
In the range of concentrations tested, CEWAF and HEWAF showed no effect on spermatozoa viability; however, dispersant at the highest dose tested decreased spermatozoa viability (Fig.
All concentrations of CEWAF induced a decrease of spermatozoa MMP, and incubation of spermatozoa with concentrations of HEWAF at 36.
The lowest concentrations of dispersant and CEWAF resulted in a 50% decrease of ROS production.
The CEWAF also induced an increase of acrosome-associated fluorescence with concentration of 14.
In the present work, neither CEWAF nor HEWAF altered viability of oyster spermatozoa.
The total PAH level in the CEWAF 2-g/L stock solution (1,429 [micro]g/L) was 3 times that of the 2-g/L WAF stock solution (452 [micro]g/L), whereas the TPH level (62 mg/L) in the CEWAF solution was 25 times greater than the WAF stock solution (2.
The CEWAF and WAF exposure levels used in these experiments represent moderate to high concentrations compared with those measured in the environment.
This is of particular interest in that the CEWAF stock solutions had a 25-fold greater concentration of TPHs than WAFs.
323 Eyed > 1200 -- -- Stage Time CEWAF PAH TPH (h) D Stage 24 177.
0001) by exposure to CEWAFs (100 mg/L), whereas exposure to WAFs had no impact on fertilization success (Fig.
Fewer D-stage larvae developed after exposure of trochophores to CEWAFs (12.