In the CFHR Division, concerns were raised over issues of communicative competence.
In CFHR, the initial promise had been that, once accepted, the three-year plans would provide some stability in which the managers could learn to be more entrepreneurial.
Middle managers in CFHR increasingly saw these mechanisms as denying their expertise, closing off debate and promoting an instrumental rationalization.
The increasing concerns of CFHR managers about business planning and performance management reflects the dialectic between rationalization as a process of reasoned justification (bringing to open and conscious reflection the criteria and grounds for action) and rationalization as the institutionalization of an instrumental reason.
Although governmental organizations, such as the CFHR, are not completely public spaces, they espouse values of openness, public consultation, internal dialogue and acting for the public good.
Many of the people at the site and division level had worked either in CFHR or in similar cultural facilities for most of their working lives.
Drawing on Bourdieu, we came to view the CFHR as a field of restricted production under threat.
Thus, the first business plan of the CFHR division stated: "[The division] will focus on the economic contribution of its facilities, programs and services by emphasizing quality, aggressive regional marketing and sound reinvestment in infrastructure.
The CFHR division, although at the time a field of restricted production, also exists within the larger political and economic field, one that gave rise to the Klein government.
Business planning in the CFHR division followed the SWOT design school model, in which organizations conceptualize their environment in terms of opportunities and threats and their own capabilities in terms of strengths and weaknesses (Mintzberg, 1994).
In the CFHR division, business planning has been premised on cultural and historical sites being, if not businesses, organizations that may be likened to businesses.
In the past, the CFHR division used elements of the logic of large-scale production, consciously and somewhat instrumentally, to defend and expand its field; what managers referred to as the core of backstage operations, such as curatorial, research, historical, and archeological activities.