To address these issues, the USCG should use its authority under the CGAA to promulgate binding RUF for PCASP.
Since this section references the CGAA of 2010, this Note focuses on the language of that CGAA for its analysis of RUF for PCASP and mariners.
Section 912 of the CGAA prevents monetary liability from attaching when "an owner, operator, time charterer, master, mariner, or individual" uses force to defend a U.
62) Additionally, after proffering examples that contrasted the standard arbiter pairing pattern the majority had offered, the dissent cited cases in which bench trials were not divorced from the beyond a reasonable doubt standard, and prudently brought attention to direct line precedence that employed a beyond a reasonable doubt standard in deciding jurisdiction prior to the 1996 CGAA amendment.
See MDLEA, supra note 3; see also CGAA, supra note 33; cf.
3d at 4 (interpreting meaning of statute); CGAA, supra note 33.
See Marijuana Act, supra note 29 (showing intent to import into United States as element of offense); see also MDLEA, supra note 3 (obviating import element of offense); CGAA, supra note 33 (explicating removal of jurisdiction from criminal offense element classification granting trial judge sole authority).