CGSESChinese Gold and Silver Exchange Society
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The revised version of the CGSES had 14 questions measuring attendance and 16 questions measuring persistence, for a total of 30 questions.
An exploratory factor analysis of the CGSES was conducted to offer additional information about construct validity.
First, the CGSES again demonstrated good reliability based on Cronbach's alpha, highlighting the consistency of student responses within each instrument.
The results related to the CGSES are reported here.
For the first testing, students completed the CGSES and a short demographic survey during class.
The CGSES was designed to measure college-going beliefs of middle school students in light of empirical evidence (e.g., Atanda, 1999; Oesterreich, 2000; Tierney et al., 2003) that this is a critical time in academic and career decision-making.
Although the studies suggested use of a total score for the CGSES, additional factor analyses with other middle school populations are needed to confirm this result.
The CGSES has potential for conducting needs assessments and completing individual planning with some or all students.
Even though the total score is recommended when using the CGSES, analysis of the item responses may help identify specific areas of concern related to college-going self-efficacy that are most prevalent in a school.
A review of the needs assessments for individuals with very low self-efficacy beliefs or targeted use of the assessment with students from at-risk groups may be another application of the CGSES. School counselors may give the CGSES to students from low-income households or low parent education levels, both groups that tend to have lower college attendance rates (Horn & Nunez, 2000).
The CGSES may be a way for school counselors to identify students potentially at risk for lowering their vocational and academic plans while there is still time to remediate the situation proactively.
Additional validity studies of the CGSES would further support its use by school counselors as well as researchers.