While this qualitative evidence is somewhat dated, there is no evidence that information tools have improved dramatically in this context and are now widely used by CHDP enrollees.
The development of CHDPs raised the concern that they would generate greater risk segmentation in insurance markets (Robinson, 2004; Rosenthal and Daniels, 2006).
When insurers engage in risk-based pricing, selection into CHDPs will reflect the relative preferences of low and high risks for different products.
In this manner, we avoided any duplication of service records that may have occurred in the CHDP and Tape-to-Tape files and the MMC pseudo-claims files.
While we made every effort to count all well-child visits and immunizations for which a record was included in either the CHDP or Tape-to-Tape and pseudo-claims files, we could not count services for which providers did not submit a claim and/or fill out the appropriate paperwork.
1 percent of AFDC children continuously enrolled for their first 2 years of life had no well-child visits paid by CHDP or' the MMC programs.
Vaclav Benda, CHDP
chairman, called that proposal "absurd.
Questionnaires were mailed to each of the 418 CHDP providers that submitted hemoglobin data for [less than or equal to]100 children aged 6-59 months to the Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System (PedNSS) during 1993.
Of the 418 CHDP providers surveyed, 344 (78%) returned a completed questionnaire; of these, 16 providers were excluded from analysis because nine used a contracted commercial laboratory to perform their hemoglobin measurements, and seven used hematocrit rather than hemoglobin assessment.
The findings in this report indicate that, in California, many CHDP providers do not comply with CLIA-mandated quality-assurance practices for hemoglobin screening in their clinical laboratories.
To establish a set of diagnosis and procedure codes that mirrored CHDP services, a physician advisory committee of four American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Fellows with expertise in the areas of health services research and preventive care were asked to identify codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) and California Standard Nomenclature system used by Medi-Cal.
After processing the Tape-to-Tape files and the CHDP files, the data were organized into a longitudinal, person-based file containing complete utilization records for services reimbursed by Medi-Cal for each child for the 4-year period 1981-84.