It is interesting to note that none of the oligophagous ciids were mostly associated with the other 5 Polyporales families, which means that fungi of these families were most frequently explored by polyphagous and monophagous species.
Furthermore, there is empirical evidence, from the present work and data compiled herein, indicating that some morphologically similar ciids, usually comprising a species-group, frequently use the same fungus species or closely related species as host.
CIIDAE AND THEIR RESPECTIVE HOST FUNGI OF THE ORDERS HYMENOCHAETALES AND POLYPORALES IN A SUBTROPICAL RAINFOREST IN SAO FRANCISCO DE PAULA (RIO GRANDE DO SUL, SOUTHERN BRAZIL) SHOWING THE NUMBER OF OCCURRENCES (N) FOR EACH CIID SPECIES, THE NUMBER OF INDIVIDUAL FUNGI BEARING CIIDS (N IND.
When a ciid species exclusively or preferably used 1 fungus family as its host (according to Kirk et al.
The sampled ciid species had variable host ranges (Table 3).
Among the 8 ciid species without an attributed feeding habit, 3 showed a tendency to oligophagy: Cis sp.3 (comptus group) and Cis diadematus Mellie, each with 3 occurrences only in Polyporaceae species; and Cis kawanabei Lopes-Andrade, with 4 occurrences in Rigidoporus spp.
Among the fungi recorded as ciid hosts for the first time, Amauroderma is a pantropical genus (Ryvarden 1991) and Mycobonia is distributed only in the Neotropical region (Corner 1984).
The specialization in closely related hosts (oligophagy), rather than in a single host species, would be the most advantageous strategy, because these hosts would be more efficiently located, and variations in population dynamics of a single fungus species would not affect the availability of resources to such ciid species.
In these works, most of the ciid species were shown to be polyphagous, several were oligophagous, and a few species were truly monophagous.
However, both ciid species were also less frequently collected in unidentified Phellinus spp., and Phellinocis thayerae had 2 records in P.
Orientation of specialist and generalist fungivorous ciid beetles to host and non-host odours.