The Ministry discussion paper acknowledges this problem: "The drawback [associated with voluntarism] is that not all companies may participate in voluntary agreements, and consequently, companies who have invested in environmental protection measures can find themselves shouldering greater costs than their competitors."(9) To address this weakness, it was proposed that the CIPSI programme have a "backdrop regulation", which would have required non-participating companies to divert at least 50 percent (by weight) of their packaging from disposal.
The next step in the evolution of voluntary product stewardship funding came in 1992, when the Grocery Product Manufacturers of Canada (GPMC), a national trade association whose 118 members produce food and food service products, introduced the Canadian Industry Packaging Stewardship Initiative (CIPSI).
(1) Researcher at CONICET, Centro de Investigaciones de la Facultad de Psicologia (CIPSI
), and Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios sobre Cultura y Sociedad (CIECS), at Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (UNC), Argentina.