Competitors in Clamp-All attempted to keep an industry for themselves as licensees under a single patent they controlled through their trade association (CISPI) that denied a license to Clamp-All who failed to pass a CISPI quality-certification test.
CISPI and its members, according to the First Circuit, still "acted within the letter and spirit of the ASSE rules,"(84) not like the Allied Tube defendant that had "packed" a meeting with ringers.(85) Whether "packed" or not, stacking any odds even if only slightly in CISPI's favor, by only partially stuffing a ballot box, would have violated not just the spirit, but the absolute letter of Allied Tube.
Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute,(220) a case in which a trade association of pipe manufacturers, the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute (CISPI
), each of whom made a particular kind of sanitary pipe coupling, designated that kind of coupling as "approved" as a CISPI
coupling and refused to approve a rival's different kind of coupling.