Thus, the decision to permit Quebec to opt out of the CJFAs was made primarily for political reasons.
Since the LMAs were criticized by the federal government for providing insufficient accountability, the CJFAs prescribe a new and different accountability regime.
There is even less transparency under the CJFAs, with no requirement for national reports, and provinces able to report to their public as they deem appropriate.
While concerned over public reporting as an accountability regime, Graefe, Simmons and White (2013) did not suggest a return to the accountability regimes of the 1960s, as seems to have occurred through the CJFAs. They counselled governments to reform accountability frameworks, while ensuring that innovation and learning in programming can occur.
While the most recent CJFAs increased provincial accountability to the federal government, public accountability in the form of transparency and justification has diminished.