Like EJVs, CJVs are also separate organizational units that involve the sharing of resources and risks, and commitment from the parents.
Therefore, partners may prefer to organize research-oriented R&D activities with CJVs rather than with EJVs not only due to reduced concern over knowledge protection but also for the flexibility offered by the contract-based governance structure.
A key difference between CJVs and EJVs lies in that an EJV involves semi-hierarchical governance which is characterized by a higher level of behaviour control while a contractual relationship is more concerned about outcome control.
At the same time that these core features were observed, the CJVS was adapting to the demands of becoming centre-stage.
The living history of the last 20 years is one where CJVS organisations can suddenly disappear or be taken over by larger organisations whilst staff, given some protection, though hardly job satisfaction or security, move agencies in the 'tupeed' (4) process.
The trend for a small number of large CJVS organisations to dominate the market and at the same time look like businesses not charities has certainly accelerated.
Independently, each researcher drafted rule memos from two of the cases (OneMBA and Great Plains IDEA) that pulled identified rules into a thematic cluster across the cases, and together we developed a set of propositions (Miles & Huberman, 1994) regarding cultural, adaptive rules in CJVs from those two cases.
The following discussion outlines the most prominent adaptive rules that emerged from our examination of these CJVs. We present the findings through an emergent framework grounded in the realities of creating and managing alliances.
The CJVs in the study were guided by selection rules largely based on shared values rather than maximizing return on investment.
In the province, 79% of realized FDI took the form of CJVs
and EJVs in 2002 (SPPG, 2003), providing a reasonably large pool to study the problems of managing JVs in the region.
Analyzing contractual joint ventures (CJVs), the dominant non-equity alliance form in China, this paper provides an empirical study of how partners transfer knowledge and learn in one type of alliance form.
CJVs in China are a complex type of non-equity cooperative alliance, with many of the attributes of subcontracting.