"Our findings indicate that, even when physicians are aware of a patient's CKD
diagnosis, there are substantial gaps in quality of CKD
care," the authors write.
Table-II: Association between the stage of CKD
and the stage of diabetic retinopathy.
Overall, 4,305 (0.1 pc) of participants had a diagnosis of CKD
, yielding an overall incidence rate of 4.95 per 100,000 person-years across all ages (0-43 years).
The common causes of CKD
identified in the patients included diabetic nephropathy 28% (140 patients), glomerulonephritis 22% (110 patients), hypertension 14.6% (73 patients), tubulo-interstitial disease 13.4% (67patients)and renal stone disease 8% (40 patients, he added.
In a country like Pakistan, risk factors for AKI and CKD
are indigenous such as social conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age including poverty, gender discrimination, lack of education, occupational hazards and pollution among others.
The common etiology of CKD
in that age-group included glomerulonephritis, diabetic nephropathy, tubulo-interstitial disease and renal stone disease.
When testing for CKD
using creatinine, certain factors must be taken into consideration, including: age, gender, ethnicity, and muscle mass.
All 520 cases were less than or equal to CKD
Stage 4 according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes Guidelines (2012).
Using the CKD
EPI Pakistan equation, they found an overall prevalence (95% CI) of CKD
of 12.5% (11.4 - 13.8%).
Stage 1 CKD
: Normal GFR: Some evidence of kidney damage reflected by microalbuminuria, proteinuria, haematuria as well as radiologic/ histologic changes.
Cartersville, GA, June 08, 2018 --(PR.com)-- Micheal Wilson of CKD
Martial Art & Self Defense of Cartersville (Choi Kwang Do) recently took a special trip to England where he participated in an international seminar held by Choi Kwang Do's founder, Grandmaster Kwang Jo Choi.