CLDQChronic Liver Disease Questionnaire
CLDQCleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry (Utah)
CLDQConcordia Lifetime Drinking Questionnaire (Concordia University; Montreal, Quebec, Canada)
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In group A, within the various domains of CLDQ, the highest change was observed in CLDQ-AC (186.89%), followed by CLDQ-FA [111.70%) and CLDQ-AB [83.23%).
When the differences observed in various domains of CLDQ scores in Group A were compared with those seen in Group B by using independent t-test, the changes in CLDQ-Global score and CLDQ-SY domain score observed in Group B were highly significant [P < 0.001); the changes observed in the CLDQ-AB and CLDQ- FA domain scores were significant [P < 0.05), whereas the changes observed in CLDQ-AC, CLDQ-EM, and CLDQ- WO domain scores were not statistically significant [P > 0.05) compared with their respective changes observed in Group A [Table 4].
Our study for the first time assessed the quality of life in these patients using CLDQ. Usually, the quality of life aspect of the disease is neglected, but it is as important as other aspects of the disease.
Both the groups were homogenous in their baseline demographic data and in most of the CLDQ scores, which indicate that the two groups were properly randomized [Table 1].
A highly significant improvement in some of the domains of CLDQ scores and in CLDQ-Global score in Group A indicates that standard treatment has to an extent improved the quality of life in these patients.
There was a statistically highly significant change in all the domains of CLDQ and CLDQ-Global score in Group B, which indicates a very good improvement in the quality of life in ALD patients when Vitamin E was added.
(17) The present study showed high mean CLDQ scores, indicating low HRQoL in the population studied.
(31,32) We selected the CLDQ in order to measure the HRQoL of patients with liver disease, regardless of etiology and severity.
The present study found a positive correlation between CLDQ scores and family income, implying that those with high family incomes had higher HRQoL, as demonstrated by Hsu et al.
On the other hand, CLDQ values were not related to age, gender, and level of education.
No correlation was observed between MELD and CLDQ scores.
Abbreviations BMI: Body mass index CLDQ: Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire CRT: Continuous reaction time test HE: Hepatic encephalopathy HRQOL: Health-related quality of life.