To begin with simple numbers, by 2009 the Rotterdam Convention covered 40 chemicals, the CLRTAP
covered 16 chemicals, and the Stockholm Convention covered 21 chemicals (Selin 2010, 15).
15) With respect to the chemical life cycle, the CLRTAP POPs protocol primarily covers the production and use of hazardous pesticides and industrial chemicals and sets emission standards for byproducts.
The first CLRTAP initiative on POPs was taken in the summer of 1989 based on concerns with high Arctic environmental concentration levels and risks for local human populations.
The CLRTAP regulatory system for POPs is designed as a two-track approach.
17) The reference to regimes other than Basel is included because not all CLRTAP parties participated in the Basel convention, and the terms "waste," "disposal," and "environmentally sound" should be interpreted in a manner consistent with the use of those terms in the Basel convention.
Unlike the CLRTAP POPs protocol, the Rotterdam Prior Informed Consent (PIG) convention, which under UNEP and FAO auspices was signed by sixty-one countries in September 1998 and as of March 2002 has twenty ratifications, does not directly regulate the production and use of hazardous chemicals but rather regulates their export and import.
With respect to chemicals such as the ones regulated by the CLRTAP POPs protocol and the Rotterdam convention, they are subject to the Basel convention if they are categorized as "hazardous waste" in Basel convention terms.
Unlike its CLRTAP predecessor, the Stockholm convention is global in scope and initially regulates fewer POPs.
This was the case in the CLRTAP POPs negotiations when the fact that not all GLRTAP parties participated in the Basel convention demanded special attention.
Table 1 List of the Sixteen Substances Initially Included in the CLRTAP POPs Protocol Annex Pesticides Industrial Unintentional chemicals by-products I Aldrin Hexabromobiphenyl Chlordane PCBs Chlordecone DDT Dieldrin Endrin Heptachlor Hexachlorobenzene Mirex Toxaphene II HCH/Lindane DDT PCBs III Dioxins Furans Hexachlorobenzene PAHs Source: Adapted from Annex I-III of the protocol.