(2) The anisotropy (variation from uniformity in different directions) in the CMBR
was found to be quite small, less than one part in 10,000.
Each time a CMBR
photon interacts with a hot electron, it gains some energy, distorting the CMBR
's spectrum in a characteristic way.
The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect is an interaction occurring between the CMBR
and high-energy particles, which produces an inverse Compton effect .
covers the entire sky but most of it is hidden in this image by the Milky Way's emission, which must be digitally removed from the final data in order to see the microwave background in its entirety.
COBE and WMAP, two NASA satellites launched in 1989 and 2001 respectively, have transformed experimental cosmology into an exact science by the remarkable precision of their data on the structure of the CMBR
. The 2006 Nobel Prize for physics was awarded to the COBE project leaders John C.
The Big Bang framework accommodates --but does not explain--several key features of today's universe: the flatness of space, the relic heat of the Big Bang (the cosmic microwave background radiation, or CMBR
), and the "lumps" that must have been present in the "primordial soup" in order to seed large-scale structure evident in today's universe.
Independent observational data like SN Ia [6, 7], cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR
) [8, 9], and baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) [10-12] proved that about 70% of the energy density content of the recent universe comprises DE.
Namely, one assumes that, if the preferred frame exists, it is likely identical with the (local) frame in which the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR
) is isotropic.
As these articles explain, the state of the art of studying the early universe involves detailed examination of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR
) and combination of SNe Ia data with CMBR
anisotropy and galaxy clustering statistics (Tegmark et al.
In addition, the expanding luminous world is consistent with the radiation energy density factor [(1 + z).sup.4] inferred from the CMBR
(Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation).