2003) to operationalize each of the 11 CMNI
scales, presenting them as factors of masculinity.
Although similar results were found for the Male Role Norms Inventory-Revised and the Gender Role Conflict Scale, both for the sake of simplicity and because it is the focus of the present study, we have limited this discussion to the results for the CMNI
In contrast, strength of athlete identity positively predicted only one CMNI
subscale (Winning, [beta] = .
Each participant was asked to complete a set of a pencil-and-paper inventories, which consisted of a demographics form, the BRIAS, the CMNI
, the CSEI, the SCL-90-R, and two other measures (i.
A comparison was made of the measures of conformity to male gender norms CMNI
, with the Spanish population by means of Student t, and Cohen's d was calculated based on sample size (Hedges' Adjustment) to control the difference in the sample size.
Bivariate correlations were conducted between self-report measures (scores on the CMNI
, MGRSS, and change scores for positive and negative affect derived from the PANAS) and the number of instances during which participants experienced fear/avoidant responses during moments of negative affect.
Prisoners and detainees at the correctional facility were asked to voluntarily participate in the survey and given a paper version of the PII, Violence Subscale, GRCS, CMNI
and a series of demographic questions asking about age, race/ethnicity, marital status, religious affiliation, educational level, marital status, and family history of crime.
For instance, investigators might analyze the subscales of the CMNI
to examine whether certain masculinity norms might lead to distress, while others might serve a protective role.
Total score showed strong evidence of internal consistency (Cronbach's [alpha] = .
The data were screened to make sure no observations were outside their possible numerical ranges (for example, CMNI
scores could only be from zero to three), and all observations were in their expected ranges.
Self-Acceptance = Self-Acceptance subscale of the Psychological Well-Being scales (PWB); Environmental Mastery = PWB Environmental Mastery subscale; Appearance Evaluation = Appearance Evaluation subscale of the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ); Body Area Satisfaction = MBSRQ Body Area Satisfaction subscale; Dominance = Dominance subscale of the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory (CMNI
); Pursuit of Status = CMNI
Pursuit of Status subscale; Victimization = Victimization subscale of the Bullying, Fighting, Victimization scale (BFV); Bullying = BFV Bullying subscale.
functions as a dimension in which 11 themes of hegemonic masculinity can be quantified (Mahalik et al.