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CNQXCyano-Nitroquinoxaline-Dione (pharmacological inhibitor)
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In other cases, magnesium concentration in aCSF was reduced to 50 [micro]M, with 10 [micro]M CNQX and 5 [micro]M picrotoxin added to reveal the component of synaptic transmission mediated by NMDA receptors.
Infusion of the non-NMDA receptor antagonist CNQX into the amygdala blocks the expression of fear-potentiated startle.
First, we examined the effects of RDX on action-potential-dependent spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) recorded at holding potential ([V.sub.h]) = +40 mV (Figure 4A) with intracellular/recording pipette solution A (see "Materials and Methods") or at [V.sub.h] = -70 mV (Figure 4B) with intracellular solution B, in the presence of CNQX (10 [micro]M), AP-5 (50 [micro]M), and SCH50911 (20 [micro]M) to block AMPA/kainate, NMDA, and [GABA.sub.B] receptors, respectively.
The glutamate antagonist CNQX blocks the swim motor program elicited by peripheral nerve stimulation
NMDA antagonist: MK-802, dextromethorphan, ifenprodil, CGS-19755, CNQX, other glutamate inhibitors
Following the first spike-recording, slices were left to incubate a further 60 min with continuous fEPSP recording and then slices were treated with 10 [micro]M CNQX or 10 [micro]M MK801 or 25 [micro]M MK801 or ACSF containing low concentration of [Mg.sub.2]S[O.sub.4] (low [Mg.sup.2+] ACSF; 0.25 mM) or 0.5 [micro]M NMDA or 0.05 [micro]M AMPA for 30 min (see Figure 1(c)).
Four animals had one eye treated with CNQX, four animals received a combination of APB and CNQX, and the remaining five had one eye treated with TPMPA with the contralateral untreated eye serving as a control in both cases.
As in vertebrates, this synaptic potential is a glutamatergic AMPA-like response, as it is blocked by CNQX and kynurenate (Hochner et al., 2003).
Stimulation with glutamate downregulated levels of GRIP1 along with surface expression of GluA2, which can be blocked by inhibition of proteasome activity by MG-132 and the NMDAR antagonist MK-801, but not the AMPAR antagonist CNQX or EGTA, suggesting that glutamate-induced GRIP1 proteasomal degradation is mediated through an NMDAR and [Ca.sup.2+] pathway [20].
These synapses are highly enriched for NMDA receptors (Salin and Bullier, 1995), and NMDA receptor potentials (NMDAR-EPSPs) were isolated with CNQX, picrotoxin, and 1.5 mM [[Mg.sup.2+]][.sub.o].
A selective antagonist for GluK1-containing kainate receptors, LY382884, blocks the induction of mossy fiber LTP [173,174], but conflictingly, mossy fiber LTP can be elicited in the presence of the AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist, CNQX [175, 176].
Further, we used amino-acid receptors blocking cocktail (AARBC) (6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2, 3-dione (CNQX) 10[micro]M and (2R)-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (AP5) 20 [micro]M, gabazine 3[micro]M along with tetrodotoxin (TTX) 0.5 [micro]M) to find out if taurine affects SG neuronal activities directly on the postsynaptic site.