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Related to COHb: carboxyhemoglobinemia, HbCO
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The report states that levels of COHb over 50% can cause symptoms of "seizure, unconsciousness [or] heart attack".
Volunteers were taken to the closed room again after 45 minutes of water-pipe smoking to re-measure their vital signs, oxygen saturation, and non-invasive COHb levels with the same device.
Similarly, tests to determine complete blood count, liver and renal functions, serum electrolytes, creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), troponin, and COHb levels as well as ECG were performed in all patients.
Patients' brachial arterial blood gases, COHb, partial pressure of [O.sub.2] (Pa[O.sub.2]), saturation of [O.sub.2] (Sa[O.sub.2]), COHb values on admission, and Pa[O.sub.2] and Sa[O.sub.2] values 1 h after treatment were recorded for each patient.
The mean CO in ppm (2.45) and mean COHb equivalent is 0.68% which is within the accepted limits and in agreement with report by other studies.
High levels of poisoning may require hyperbaric oxygen, which should be considered for patients who are unconscious or have an abnormal score on the Carbon Monoxide Neuropsychological Screening Battery, COHb of >40%, signs of cardiac ischemia or arrhythmia, history of ischemic heart disease with COHb level >20%, recurrent symptoms for up to 3 weeks, or symptoms that have not resolved with normobaric oxygen after 4 to 6 hours.
This causes COHb formation and impairments in the oxygen transport system, which lead to tissue hypoxia (1, 4).
Inhaled CO mainly is bind with hemoglobin containing [Fe.sup.2+] to form carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) [3], and CO has 200 times the affinity for hemoglobin than oxygen that cause impairs oxygen delivery and peripheral utilization leading to tissue hypoxia, oxidative stress, and inflammation within short period (hours or days) after CO poisoning [4, 5].
Abbreviations ADL: Activity of daily living ARWMC: Age related white matter changes CO: Carbon monoxide COHb: Carboxyhemoglobin DEACMP: Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning HBO: Hyperbaric oxygenation MMSE: Mini mental state examination MoCA: Montreal cognitive assessment TCM: Traditional Chinese medicine.
The level of CO is an indirect measure of blood carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb).
Having in mind the climate conditions of the city and the large numbers of fires in the dry period, this study aimed to ascertain the levels of exhaled carbon monoxide (COex) and carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and cardiopulmonary changes in elderly people who practice exercise in external environments, and to assess the correlation with climatic variables, air pollution and fires.