This means that the vessel was not compliant with Rule 5 of Colreg
which obliges every vessel to have a proper lookout at all times.
(670) In addition, the IMO has also offered several binding and nonbinding instruments in the form of detailed conventions such as the Ballast Water Management Convention and COLREG
, which are legally binding instruments of the IMO relating to the safety of the marine environment from harmful materials carried by ships as ballast and the prevention of collisions of ships at sea, respectively.
and the International Maritime Organization III.
6, 7, and 8, (83) the Second Circuit affirmed the district
The technology and system has been thoroughly tested both at sea and under a multitude of scenarios using desktop and bridge simulators, to demonstrate its robustness, and prove that autonomous navigation can meet existing COLREG
Contents Introduction Background Overview of Disputes Maritime Territorial Disputes Dispute Regarding China's Rights Within Its EEZ Relationship of Maritime Territorial Disputes to EEZ Dispute 1972 Multilateral Convention on Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGs
Convention) Negotiations Between China and ASEAN on SCS Code of Conduct China's Approach to Territorial Disputes Map of the Nine-Dash Line "Salami-Slicing" Strategy and "Cabbage" Strategy Use of China Coast Guard Ships and Other Ships Preference for Treating Disputes on Bilateral Basis Chinese Actions Since Late 2013 That Have Heightened Concerns U.S.
It should be noted that the equation on the maneuvering board was followed by the rules of the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGS
), commentaries to them, and recommendations on so-called "good seamanship." Finally, the values of the input vector and the value corresponding to that one made with the maneuvering board for changing the operator ship course were recorded in a learning sample.
What is more, the manoeuvre should fulfil a number of configurable conditions imposed by either COLREGS
or a navigator.
"The Iranian vessel's actions were not in accordance with the internationally recognized COLREGs
'rules of the road' nor internationally recognized maritime customs, creating a risk for collision," said the statement.
(21) In particular, in section VII(F) of the ruling, entitled "Operation of Law Enforcement Vessels in a Dangerous Manner," the court examined whether the actions of China's MLE vessels near Scarborough Shoal had breached articles 21, 24, and 94 of UNCLOS by operating in a "dangerous manner causing serious risk of collision to Philippine vessels." In rendering its judgment, the court relied on the guidelines in the Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972 (COLREGS
), of which both China and the Philippines are members, as one of the "generally accepted international regulations" to which flag states are required to conform regarding rules of navigation, avoidance of accidents at sea, and good seamanship.
(33) The Tribunal also determined that the actions of Chinese law enforcement vessels in the vicinity of Scarborough Shoal had "created serious risk of collision and danger to Philippine vessels and personnel", (34) thereby violating multiple rules of COLREGS
, (35) and in consequence, China was found to have breached Article 94.
(50.) Such international and regional protocols include the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGS
), Military Maritime Consultative Agreement (MMCA), Western Pacific Naval Symposium (WPNS), Code for Unalerted Encounters at Sea (CUES), International Code of Signals, United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), and the International Civil Aviation Organization Rules of the Air (ICAO).