CONWRCrab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge (Marion, IL; USFWS)
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We set traps opportunistically at latrine locations and along travel routes where river otter sign could be located on CONWR and the surrounding private lands.
The pooled annual survival estimate for river otters in southern Illinois was similar to estimates documented for unexploited populations in Minnesota and Alaska (Ben-David el al., 2001; Gorman el al., 2008); which was expected given most study animals (61%) were protected from harvest by residing on CONWR.
Despite a high road density within southern Illinois of 1.4 km/[km.sup.2], we confirmed only one vehicle collision mortality during the post-monitoring period that occurred on a highway that bisects CONWR. Road mortality is a particularly well-documented mortality source for carnivores, and can become especially common where highways bisect high-quality wildlife habitat (Gibeau and Heuer, 1996; Clevenger, 1998; Nielsen and Woolf, 2002; Kolowski and Nielsen, 2008).
I thank the following individuals for facilitating this study: Mike Brown and Tom Palmer (CONWR) for permission to conduct this study on the refuge (U.S.
Coyote scats were collected semimonthly along dirt roads as part of an investigation of coyote foraging ecology at CONWR (Cypher, 1991).
Raccoon scats with persimmon seeds at CONWR rarely contained other food remains whereas coyote scats rarely consisted entirely of persimmons..its the proportion of fruit in the diet increases, gastrointestinal passage of food items is more rapid due to the laxative qualities in fruits (Murray et al., 1994).
Persimmons at CONWR exhibited synchronous ripening (pers.