graduate education's hierarchy conveyed biased and prejudiced references to gender and cultural differences that reinforce a sense of group cohesion among the COOCs.
For COOCs, the alignment with power and the alliance with hosts are indispensable adjustments for Chinese students.
For COOCs, accommodation is a strategy that calls for wisdom and will power beyond the academe for interpersonal skills can make one more competitive in any context.
COOCs in these forums elaborated on the importance of modesty and humbleness as a behavioral principle and cultural strategy for Chinese overseas.
However, the strategy of accusing others of discrimination did not generate much support in the virtual community since COOCs were reluctant to believe that the two cases were related fundamentally to Chinese identity.
Lessening the Chinese cultural core is a form of advocated strategic cultural identification that, though emphasizing individual differences, may reflect COOCs' awareness of their disadvantaged position and status as a group in the cultures of host countries.
Together these strategies reflect how the COOCs understand what it means to be Chinese outside China and how to be effective in cultural adaptation.
A close reading of COOCs' responses to these incidents reveals that they are motivated to identify with Chinese victims because the incidents appeal to a basic need for physical safety as they, too, are Chinese living in foreign lands and surrounded by people with racial and ethnic backgrounds similar to that of the perpetrators.
COOCs have a realistic understanding of the implications of being a minority group in a host society where the Chinese have a hard time making alliances with other groups.
Many COOCs attribute the cause of ethnic/racial crimes against Chinese individuals to the unattractiveness and powerlessness of Chinese culture in the host society.
In traditional Chinese culture, one kind of ideal personhood for young people who are still growing is "Wen Wu Shuang Quan" or "being versed in both literary and martial virtues." In the online forums, many COOCs pointed out that contemporary Chinese overseas are predominantly academic, nerdy and feeble, lacking physical strength and fighting instinct and, therefore, are becoming easy targets of the bullies.
COOCs made efforts to avoid cultural shame evoked by reported cases of Chinese victimization in foreign contexts by cutting off the cultural connection.