COWATControlled Oral Word Association Test
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Across the three classification categories, the differences in score means of the RAVLT (total), digit symbol (90 s), and COWAT Animal were highly significant, with p < 0.001.
The Table 3 shows the mean scores of younger and older adults on the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT) total scores and errors.
The COWAT is a test of word-generation capacity, and the Stroop score reflects the ability to discriminate between a color on a page and a word identifying a different color, so you have here a realm of neurocognitive function that has nothing to do with memory.
Poor performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, the Trail Making Test, and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT) has been associated with impulsive aggressive behavior (Stanford et al., 1997).
Only those who scored worse than 0.5 SD below the mean on the PASAT or CVLT-II received the rest of the neuropsychological battery that included the COWAT [10], SDMT [11], an adapted version of the UFOV [12], and the Stroop [13].
The participants were then administered the neuropsychological measures in the following order: WCST, NART, Semantic Fluency test, TMT, COWAT, the Design Fluency, and the BCT.
The ALS Cognitive Behavioral Screen (ALS-CBS) [7], the Verbal Fluency Index C words (VFI) [8], and Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT) [9] were used to assess executive functioning, attention, verbal fluency, and mental control.
The neuropsychological battery consisted of the digit span forward and backward tasks, the Stroop Color Word Test, the Trail Making Test (TMT), and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT).
This same test is known as the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT; Steiner, Mansur, Brucki, & Nitrini, 2008), and, early on, its results in clinical contexts were used as factors of general cognitive functioning.
* Verbal Fluency Controlled Oral Word Association (COWAT; Benton & Hamsher, 1989) is a measure of verbal fluency and word list generation.