COWATControlled Oral Word Association Test
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Two other tests useful for screening of dementia and consistent with other studies were the RCF[34] and COWAT Animal.
9,38] Several tests displayed significant diagnostic accuracy for MCI, namely digit symbol (90 s), COWAT F, FAS Total and Animal, and the TMT-B, with the highest sensitivity reported for digit span (backwards), digit symbol (120 s), and Maze total.
The COWAT is a measure of phonemic verbal fluency and consists of three word-naming trials [10].
Pearson's correlation coefficients between the PDQ, BDI-IA, COWAT, SDMT, UFOV, and Stroop were computed for this subset.
Abbreviations: BDI-IA = Beck Depression Inventory-Amended; CI = confidence interval; COWAT = Controlled Oral Word Association Test; CVLT-II = California Verbal Learning Test, 2nd edition; MS = multiple sclerosis; MSQLI = MS Quality of Life Inventory; PASAT = Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test; PDQ = Perceived Deficits Questionnaire; QOL = quality of life; SD = standard deviation; SDMT = Symbol Digit Modalities Test; Stroop = Stroop color-word test; UFOV = useful field of view; VA = Department of Veterans Affairs.
The participants were then administered the neuropsychological measures in the following order: WCST, NART, Semantic Fluency test, TMT, COWAT, the Design Fluency, and the BCT.
There was also a significant difference between groups on the COWAT, but no significant differences for the Design Fluency, WCST, and the BCT scores.
The equations for the WCST, TMT, COWAT, and Semantic Fluency however, produced consistent diagnostic rates, contributing further evidence for their validity.
For the COWAT, where no manual exists, the instructions were as given in Spreen and Strauss (1991).
For the COWAT the total number of words generated on all three letters (FAS) was used to represent overall performance on the phonetic version of the task.
in scores on the two subscales of the RMT, the GNT, and the COWAT (total score FAS).