The 4th congress of CPBM in December 1995 in Liberec gave stimulus to another shift in the party's program and in the interpretation of its ideological propositions.
It was both a product of the previous victory of the conservative wing over the reforming communists within the party (and in this sense, a response to the previous conflicts over the party's identity), and an expression of the intense effort being made by the CPBM to clearly define itself against other political formations operating on the left side of the political spectrum.
This became apparent at the programmatic conference of the CPBM in January 1999 which refused socialist nationalization strategies and the privileged role of the bureaucratic establishment.
With the partial exception of the local/communal sphere, the CPBM has not had a chance to implement its policy propositions.
A favourite issue used by the CPBM in its role as an anti-system party is the membership of the Czech Republic in NATO.
It can be said that the central motive of such positions and propositions and the CPBM programmatic sphere closely related with them is the defense of the unprivileged, vulnerable social classes which have been cast in the role of "losers" in the process of transformation.
The mid-1990s brought a shift in the formulation of the economic and social policy positions of CPBM connected with two mutually related factors.
The CPBM considered this of special importance, and even more so given the party's analysis that the Czech Republic was experiencing a "deep economic, social, moral and political crisis" resulting from a "failure to control" the transformation of the economy (CPBM, 2000a).
If we now focus on the issue of the link between the anti-system orientation of CPBM and its policy positions, we will arrive at the question of whether the party's policies can be seen as reflecting the typical "outbidding" policy pronouncements of an anti-system party, i.
In order to understand the character of the CPBM one must of course look at its members and electorate.
The trends in the number of CPBM members in the Czech Republic and their social characteristics since 1992 are shown in the following tables.
The CPBM is a mass party, but a special sort of mass party.