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The existing works in CRAHN routing protocols can be classified based on their support for the following : (i) routing with spectrum decision, that is, joint spectrum selection with the choice of the next hop forwarding node, (ii) routing with joint spectrum decision and PU awareness, where the CUs are able to identify the locations of PUs and route around them as in , and (iii) routing with joint spectrum decision and reconfigurability, where the route can be adapted with local spectrum changes or by selecting a different set of forwarding nodes altogether.
The dynamic and multi-hop nature of CRAHN communication impacts the stability of path to these gateways.
Example 2: Consider a multi-hop CRAHN (cognitive radio ad hoc network) shown in Figure 5, with nodes S and D as the source and destination nodes respectively (adapted from ).
For this reason, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is seeking to meet future military needs based on CR Ad Hoc Networks (CRAHNs) .
It is expected that compared to one-hop CRNs, TCP will encounter more serious difficulty in providing end-to-end communications in multi-hop CRNs, such as CR ad hoc networks (CRAHNs)  -infrastructureless, self-organizing multi-hop networks, and lacking centralized network management.
In the paradigm of Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks (CRAHNs), SUs can communicate with each other in ad hoc manner through both available licensed and unlicensed spectrum bands without relying on a preexisting infrastructure , resulting in the ubiquitous connectivity, minimal configuration, quick deployment and improved network scalability.
Then, we present our contribution in this paper which consists in implementing a parallel dynamic programming algorithm on a multi-core architecture applied in CRAHNs. We also implement cuckoo search and compare it to our dynamic programming implementation using threads.
Chowdhury (2009), "CRAHNs: Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks," Ad Hoc Networks, vol.7, pp.810-836.
Hamdi, "Harnessing Frequency Domain for Cooperative Sensing and Multi-channel Contention in CRAHNs," IEEE Trans.
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