Rarified species numbers were higher both in SI and SII than in CRI and CRII (related to the gradient forests these were 30.9% and 33.0%, respectively), and 41.7% more species were collected in SIII compared to CRIII.
On the basis of such comparisons, primary forests are clearly distinguishable from the adjacent secondary forests (SI, SII, SIII) merging into the primary forest, which are, themselves, clearly separated from the isolated forests (CRI, CRII, CRIII).
SI, SII, SIII = secondary forests connected with primary forests; CRI, CRII, CRIII = isolated secondary forests.
Not all attacks will so plainly reveal a path back to their source as did CRII; tracing an attack to an intermediate attacking machine, not to speak of the computer owned by the originator in a DDoS attack, may be impossible.
A good example is the February 2003 Sapphire worm attack, in which systems administrators, who had presumably been put on notice by prior CRII and Nimda attacks, failed to implement simple patches which would have blocked the spread of the similar Sapphire attack.