Yakama Tribe, CRITFC
, and several environmental groups, in which the
The Nimiipuu also engage in the formation of intergovernmental and intertribal cooperation, resulting in the CRITFC
and other collaborations with various federal agencies such as the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Fish and Wildlife Service (NFWS).
Officials at CRITFC
and NWIFC say that tribes deserve credit for developing complex, habitat-based approaches to fish recovery-plans focused on the health of entire watersheds.
(46.) Columbia Intertribal Fish Commission (CRITFC
), "Spirit of the Salmon Plan," www.critfc.org, 1994.
River Intertribal Fish Commission (CRITFC
), Yakama Indian Nation, United
Fish and seafood are major dietary components for the Shoalwater; these resources have very important traditional and spiritual roles in tribal communities (CRITFC
1994; Suquamish Tribe 2000; Toy et al.
Furthermore, the tribal plan provides a means by which anadromous fish will exist for future generations,(26) CRITFC
set an ambitious time frame to halt population declines and begin recovery.(27) Specifically, the Spirit of the Salmon seeks to halt salmon population declines within seven years of implementation and to also increase the number of adult salmon returning to habitat above the Bonneville Dam by four million annually within twenty-five years.(28)
Weber, Policy Analyst at CRITFC
for his assistance and interest
The state fishery agencies of Oregon, Idaho, and Washington, as well as CRITFC
, balanced the risks and benefits associated with spill and concluded that spill provides improved juvenile salmon survival, even when nitrogen levels are as high as 125%.
(65) Telephone Interview with Bob Heinith, Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC
(19) Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Comm'n (CRITFC
), Scientific Rationale for Implementing a Summer Spill Program to INcrease Juvenile Salmonid Survival in the Snake and Columbia Rivers 2 (1994).
The Columbia River Inter-tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC
), which represents the four tribes on fisheries matters, presented the restoration plan to President Clinton and to Congress in June 1995.283 Additionally, the Umatilla Tribes released a salmon policy in May 1995, which calls for extensive salmon recovery measures.(284) The CRITFC
plan and the Umatilla policy present the tribal perspective on what the government's trust responsibilities are in the context of Columbia River salmon recovery.