models the CRSF after the classical cross section of cyclotron resonance, where D is the depth and W is the width of the resonance.
(40) Including these and other firm examples, the CRSF has been detected to date from about 20 objects, out of the ~50 BXPs that are securely catalogued in the Local Universe.
Figure 6 shows distribution histograms of the values of [B.sub.d] of NSs, determined with the P-P method ([section] 3.1) and the CRSF technique ([section] 3.3).
6 is that the MF distribution of BXPs (in green), determined with the CRSF technique via Eq.
The CRSF technique has provided a very important probe to the MF strengths of BXPs, and has reinforced the view that the MF is unlikely to make gradual decays except at >[B.sub.cr].
Following the Ginga achievements, observations with the BeppoSAX, RXTE, and INTEGRAL satellites increased the number of detected CRSFs. (28, 29) From a fair number of these objects, higher harmonic absorptions were detected (e.g., Fig.
Suzaku, (4) launched in 2005, allowed us to search CRSFs in the 30-100 keV energy range, which had poorly been explored by previous missions.
The 1967 Outer Space Treaty asserts that states shall "regard astronauts as envoys of mankind in outer space and shall render to them all possible assistance" and that "in carrying on activities in outer space and on celestial bodies, the astronauts of one State Party shall render all possible assistance to the astronauts of other States Parties." (23) The current DOD personnel recovery obligation applies only to US government missions, but does the treaty obligate the United States to use its CRSF capability for all astronauts--civilian, military, foreign, and US?
Therefore, the United States must establish a Personnel Recovery CRSF that uses private space-lift carriers similar to the airlift CRAF currently in place.