Once the image is obtained, retinal vessel diameters can be measured in the concentric annulus around the ONH and all parameters (CRAE, CRVE and AVR) calculated according to the formulae outlined earlier.
Figure 3 shows a series of different fundi along with their semi-automatically derived values for CRAE, CRVE and AVR to illustrate the subtle differences that can be overlooked when using a subjective approach.
17) Objective AVR calculation provides values of CRAE and CRVE, which cannot be obtained by subjective grading, and are superior to AVR itself in regards to risk prediction and monitoring microvascular change over time.
No significant associations between CRVE and air pollution indicators were estimated based on this model.
including CRVE in models of associations between the exposures and CRAE, and vice versa) (Table 2 and Table 3, model 2), and much less by blood pressure (see Supplemental Material, Table S2).
All associations with CRAE moved toward the null when adjusted for CRVE in addition to the other covariates (Table 2, model 2); however, statistically significant negative associations persisted for 24 hr average exposures to both [PM.