37] Indeed, the impact of CSVD on dementia could be much more substantial than the impact of cerebral large vessel disease.
More attention should be paid to this issue, and targeted efforts are needed to increase our understanding of the relationship between BP levels and CSVD progression and between the numbers, volumes, and anatomical locations of CSVD and cognitive impairment.
For ischemic cSVD, patients with SLIs were older than patients without (65.
These molecular mechanisms are also supposed to be associated with the occurrence of cSVD.
CMBs, as a novel image surrogate of cSVD, have been proved to be associated with endothelial dysfunction, BBB leakage, inflammation activation, and oxidative stress [7, 13, 19, 26].
Although CMBs, SLIs, and WMHs are common and representative surrogates of cSVD, there might be differences in risk factors and specific pathophysiology between ischemic and hemorrhagic cSVD [13, 32, 33].
Third, in addition to these typically MRI surrogates, enlarged perivascular space and brain atrophy have been recently suggested as constituents of cSVD, which also deserve further study.