CTA1Cholera Toxin A1 Subunit
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The precise mode by which CTA1 reaches the cytosol is still not fully resolved.
Similar to the endocytosis and retrograde transport of CT to the ER, the translocation of CTA1 to the cytosol also engages a natural recycling cellular process, the so-called ER-associated degradation or degradasome pathway, which normally retrieves misfolded proteins from the ER for their degradation in the cytosol (36).
The entry of CTA1 to the cell cytosol is the key step for intoxication because CTA1 catalyzes the ADP ribosylation of the trimeric Gsa component of AC.
Partial blocking of the ADP-ribosylation site can be achieved by adding peptides to the amino terminal of CTA1 that produces steric hindrance on the enzymatically active site, thereby reducing the toxicity (56).