CTBE cells have basal-like malignant breast tumor characteristics.
Both CK5 and p63 were overexpressed in CTBE cells (Figures 4A).
CTBE cells acquire characteristics of aggressive malignant breast cancer cells.
This is consistent with our data, where cadmium in vitro both induced malignant transformation and produced highly aggressive cells, as the molecular phenotype of the CTBE cells equates to a cancer of poor prognosis (Fadare and Tavassoli 2007; Yehiely et al.
However, CTBE cells remain ER-negative after acquisition of malignant phenotype in vitro and even after production of xenograft tumors in vivo.