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the presence of CTBNs could also cause nanoparticle aggregation during phase separation and thus might reduce the toughening effect .
Frequently used interleaving materials include thin thermoplastic films such as PEEA/PA film [146, 147], bisphenol A based epoxy , FM 300 epoxy resin [148, 149], PEI films , poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) PEAA [150, 151], polyethylene based films , epoxy modified with carboxyl-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (CTBN) and polyurethane (PU) , cyanate ester/epoxy resin film , glass/epoxy softening strips , and nitride rubber modified epoxy interleaves .
The modifiers of the matrices were silica nanoparticles dispersed in epoxy (Nanopox XP, Nanoresins, Germany), a CTBN liquid rubber (Hycar CTBN 1300X13), and halloysite particles (Imerys Tableware New Zealand Limited).
At CTBN meetings, which occur twice per year on a rotating basis at member school sites, these school leaders take action.
"The large domain of the CTBN or ATBN modifier in an epoxy matrix--on the order of tens of microns--makes it impossible to toughen ultra-thin applications where the thickness of the epoxy layer is also on the order of microns," Bohen explains.
Similar types of fracture morphologies in CTBN modified epoxies were already described by Pearson and Yee , but not yet for BCP toughened epoxies.
Figure 2 shows the result of incorporating several different CTBN reactive liquid polymers; in a 100 lb-in reverse impact test, an unmodified epoxy sample was punctured by impact, whereas the three CTBN-modified epoxies remained intact.
One of the reinforced nanocomposite batches was toughened with 10 weight% almost unreactive liquid carboxyl terminated butadiene nitrile (CTBN) rubber (1.25xGnP + CTBN + VE and 2.5xGnP + CTBN + VE).
HyPox CTBN modified epoxies are epoxy functional carboxy terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile elastomers for toughening, impact and adhesion.
BFGoodrich Co.'s Specialty Polymers and Chemicals Div., Cleveland, has developed two new, lower viscosity versions of its Hycar carboxyl-terminated butadiene/acrylonitrile copolymers (CTBN), which are already widely used for toughening epoxies, mainly in adhesives.
A variety of toughening agents can be added to the initial formulation such as rubbers (CTBN, ATBN, etc.) [2-7], thermoplastic polymers , core-shell particles [9-11], or a large variety of block copolymers [12-19].
, the elastomeric modifiers such as amine terminated butadiene-co-acrylonitrile (ATBN), carboxyl terminated butadiene-co-acrylonitrile (CTBN), and acrylate elastomer had been widely used for this purpose.
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- CTBT Organisation Preparatory Commission
- CTBTO PrepCom
- CTC Instrumentation Systems Plan/Program
- CTC OIS
- CTC WIN