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That may be because CTLA-4 often shows up on other T cells, not just the killer T cells on the front lines, and thus may have an indirect effect on the tumor.
While the costimulation pathway initiated by the CD28 receptor has an activating effect on naive T cells, the pathway initiated by CTLA-4 has an inhibitory effect on T-cell activation.
Abnormal gene expression in CTLA-4 and IL-I 7 has recently been discovered in cutaneous melanoma, which has led to the development of immunotherapy with IL-2, IL-23, and CTLA-4 blockade.
Further analysis of CD4+ CD25high T cells in young and elderly donors showed equivalent expression of intracellular CTLA-4 and surface expression of activation markers.
The drug works by blocking a molecule linked to melanoma called CTLA-4, which interferes with the protective activity of white blood cells.
Ipilimumab: a monoclonal antibody that inhibits the activity of CTLA-4, enabling the body's immune system to fully attack the cancer key Definitions
CTLA-4 is part of the B7/CD28-CTLA-4 pathway and a negative regulator of T-cell function.
Pfizer's drug tremelimumab and Bristol-Myers Squibb's ipilimumab are antibodies to a protein called CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4) that acts as an emergency brake to prevent killer T cells from attacking healthy tissue.
The part of CTLA-4 located outside the cell has a structure similar to that of the binding region of an antibody, and the smaller sections involved in direct target attachment can be modified to provide binding agents with new types of binding specificities.
Other topics include multiplexed protein array platforms for analysis of autoimmune diseases, the diverse functions of cytokines in lymphoid homeostasis, the physiological implications of CTLA-4 structures, and the differences between human and mice Foxp3 regulation.
The gene believed to boost risk if it has the variation is the CTLA-4 gene, they report.
30, 2015 /PRNewswire/ -- Decision Resources Group finds that immune checkpoint inhibitors, specifically CTLA-4 inhibitor Yervoy (Bristol-Myers Squibb/Ono Pharmaceutical), and programmed death-1 inhibitors Opdivo (Bristol-Myers Squibb/Ono Pharmaceutical) and Keytruda (Merck & Co.
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- CTL differentiation factor
- CTL tryptase