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In order to check the inter-correlation among the items, the correlation matrices for actual and preferred forms of the CTLES were provided.
To have parallel scales in both forms, and to keep the number of item in CTLES equal to that of CLES, all the thirty items were retained and the refined version of the CTLES consisted of five six-item scales.
6.1 Internal consistency reliability of the refined CTLES
Table 4 reports the internal consistency (alpha reliability coefficient) for the refined CTLES, with separate reports for actual and preferred forms and for the use of the individual student as the unit of analysis.
6.2 The ability of the refined CTLES to differentiate between classrooms
This characteristic was explored for each scale of the actual form of the refined CTLES for the total sample of 523 Iranian students described previously.
Based on the analyses reported above, it is clear that the refined CTLES exhibited satisfactory factorial validity and internal consistency reliability and that the actual form of each scale was able to differentiate between classes.
Data collected using the CTLES were used in a research application involving investigation of whether there were differences between students' actual and preferred classroom environment scores on the scales of Personal Relevance, Uncertainty, Critical Voice, Shared Control and Student Negotiation.
The average item mean and average item standard deviation were calculated for each actual and preferred scale of the refined the refined version of CTLES for the individual as the units of analysis.
This paper aims to stimulate and to facilitate further research on the application of constructivism in translation classrooms by developing a new instrument, the Constructivist Translation Classroom Environment Survey (CTLES), which assesses five scales of the actual and preferred climate of constructivist translation classes.
The CTLES was field-tested and validated with a sample consisting of 523 Iranian university students in twenty-five translation classrooms.
We hope educational researchers and teachers will use the CTLES to pursue several research and practical applications of constructivist education ideas in translation classroom environments.
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- CTL differentiation factor
- CTL tryptase