There are many potential moderator variables to evaluate within multimedia shaped using Mayer's model; motivation is a logical starting point given the criticism of the CTML levied by Astleitner and Wiesner (2004) and prior research demonstrating the positive impact of motivation on learning when using multimedia in university-level course work (Giesbers et al.
To operationalize the CTML, Mayer (2008) developed and experimentally tested 12 instructional design principles.
Results from this study advance the applicability of Mayer's (2009) CTML and the theory on which it is based, cognitive load theory (Chandler & Sweller, 1991).
CTML is comprised of many other principles (Mayer, 2008b; Mayer & Moreno, 1999; Reed, 2006).
An important goal with CTML is determining if learning actually occurred.
The combination of these two theories and associated research findings underwrite Mayer's CTML and its three assumptions about human cognition.
A key component of the CTML is an understanding that learners' cognitive capacity is influenced by three kinds of cognitive load during learning, termed the triarchic model of cognitive load (DeLeeuw & Mayer, 2008).
Therefore, within the framework of the CTML, the flipped classroom environment was expected to provide better learning achievement than the traditional classroom.
Moreover, CTML theory was adopted in the flipped classroom environment because students were asked to watch uploaded video lessons.
As such, CLT and CTML can be called cognitive-resource oriented theories.
CTML also assumes that information is stored in the form of schemata.
Germane cognitive load in CLT represented as generative cognitive processing in Mayer's CTML
, has been studied by manipulating germane sources of load (Renkl, Atkinson, & Grofie, 2004; Gerjets & Hesse, 2004; Berthold & Renkl, 2009).