The instructions were designed to promote an understanding of abstract concepts and invisible infinitesimal phenomena in genetics by applying principles of multimedia design suggested by CLT and CTML
. Both animation and static picture instruction presented important concepts and phenomena in genetics, including (1) genetic material, (2) the process of cell division, (3) the process of mitosis, and (4) the process of meiosis.
AR is a useful technology with which to improve learning, as explained by the CTML
In the CTML
, Mayer  provides a theoretical framework that describes how verbal and visual information is processed.
The theoretical framework on which CAPs are derived is Mayer's (2009) CTML
. The CTML
holds that learners use their auditory and visual inputs concurrently within working memory, and learning is maximized when these inputs are used in combination instead of redundantly (e.g., text is used as the on-screen visual and the presenter reads the content verbatim; Mayer, 2009).
Furthermore, Mahlmann (2006), comparing cohort and CTML
estimations, found the observed value for the distance metric to be equal to 0.00047 (with a 5 % statistical significance), while Livingston et al.
ranged from 0 to 50 instances (M = 18.95, SD = 16.01), and NCTML ranged from 0 to 34 instances (M = 11.91, SD = 9.65).
Essentially a branch of cognitive information processing, CTML
was developed by Mayer, Heiser, and Lonn (2001) specifically for multimedia instruction.
The combination of these two theories and associated research findings underwrite Mayer's CTML
and its three assumptions about human cognition.
Therefore, within the framework of the CTML
, the flipped classroom environment was expected to provide better learning achievement than the traditional classroom.
Against the background of empirical results from research on learning from multiple external representations (of the learning contents) and research on tool use (i.e., learners' use and conceptions of support measures in CBLEs) I finally propose incorporating the notion of metacognitive demands in resourceoriented theories such as such as the cognitive load theory (CLT; Chandler & Sweller, 1991; Sweller, 2003; Sweller, 2004) and the cognitive theory of multimedia learning (CTML
; Mayer, 2005).
Applying the types of cognitive load to designing multimedia learning environments, Mayer (2009, 2014b) suggested three kinds of cognitive processing demands in his cognitive theory of multimedia learning (CTML
) that are extraneous processing, essential processing, and generative processing (also see Moreno & Mayer, 2010).