test manual contains two predictive criterion validity studies which bear directly on the purpose of this paper (Wagner, Toregesen & Rashotte, 1999, pp.
Phonological awareness was indicated by two measures in this step; namely, the CTOPP
Elision and Blending Words subtests.
Abbreviations: BNT = Boston Naming Test, C = consonant, CILT = constraint-induced language therapy, CTOPP
= Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, ITSACORR = independent time series analysis of autocorrelated data, LAC = Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization, LiPS = Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing, PDP = parallel distributed processing, RCBA = Reading Comprehension Battery for Aphasia, RR&D = Rehabilitation Research and Development, RTT = Revised Token Test, V = vowel, VA = Department of Veterans Affairs, WAB = Western Aphasia Battery, WRMT-R = Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised.
After 10 weeks of instruction, all groups were post-tested using the Sight Word Efficiency subtest of the TOWRE and the Elision, Blending Words, and Segmenting Words subtests of the CTOPP
TABLE 2 Model Fit Estimates for Phonological Processing Measures CTOPP
Blending Words Estimate s.
Based on these cut scores, students in the current study had to score either [less than or equal to] the 9th percentile on the letter identification subtest of the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests Revised/Normative Update (WRMT-R/NU; Woodcock, 1987/1998) and/or [less than or equal to] the 16th percentile on the CTOPP
Rapid Object Naming (RON) subtest.
The mean CTOPP
scores of the sample also represented significant deficits in phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid naming.
fewer than six letters correctly named in 1 min; Good & Kaminski, 2002); or (b) a score below the 37th percentile on the CTOPP
Sound-Matching subtest (Wagner, Torgesen, & Rashotte, 1999).
All tests were administered by eight curriculum specialists trained to administer and score the CTOPP
, the TOWRE, and the QRI-II.
Here we do not report on the CTOPP
Blending Nonwords subtest or researcher-developed word list to reduce redundancy and multiple contrasts in the analyses.
With respect to the CTOPP
scores, results showed an interaction effect.
The students' CTOPP
postintervention Phonological Awareness subtest percentile ranks and standard scores increased, but all students remained substantially below the average (i.