1 TABLE 2 Mean Pre-, Post-, and Change Scores, Standard Deviations, F Values, and Estimated Effect Sizes Experimental (n = 47) Construct/Measure Pre Post Change Phonological Awareness CTOPP
A significant interaction was found between deficiency and time for the CTOPP
Elision F(1,55) = 4.
90 TABLE 5 Means and Standard Deviations for CTOPP
Phonological Awareness Composite Score Baseline 30-Week Group M SD M SD Early exit: 10 weeks, n = 10 94.
TABLE 2 Model Fit Estimates for Phonological Processing Measures CTOPP
Blending Words Estimate s.
test manual contains two predictive criterion validity studies which bear directly on the purpose of this paper (Wagner, Toregesen & Rashotte, 1999, pp.
Phonological awareness was indicated by two measures in this step; namely, the CTOPP
Elision and Blending Words subtests.
Abbreviations: BNT = Boston Naming Test, C = consonant, CILT = constraint-induced language therapy, CTOPP
= Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, ITSACORR = independent time series analysis of autocorrelated data, LAC = Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization, LiPS = Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing, PDP = parallel distributed processing, RCBA = Reading Comprehension Battery for Aphasia, RR&D = Rehabilitation Research and Development, RTT = Revised Token Test, V = vowel, VA = Department of Veterans Affairs, WAB = Western Aphasia Battery, WRMT-R = Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised.
After 10 weeks of instruction, all groups were post-tested using the Sight Word Efficiency subtest of the TOWRE and the Elision, Blending Words, and Segmenting Words subtests of the CTOPP
Phonological awareness was assessed using the SM subtest of the CTOPP
(Wagner et al.
fewer than six letters correctly named in 1 min; Good & Kaminski, 2002); or (b) a score below the 37th percentile on the CTOPP
Sound-Matching subtest (Wagner, Torgesen, & Rashotte, 1999).
The mean CTOPP
scores of the sample also represented significant deficits in phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid naming.
Here we do not report on the CTOPP
Blending Nonwords subtest or researcher-developed word list to reduce redundancy and multiple contrasts in the analyses.