Such owner-occupier expenditures are not included in the CUHS and its housing expenses are thus severely understated.
To gain a more complete measure of household expenditures, we impute the owner-occupied housing rental equivalent using current housing values reported in the CUHS. Given the above results, and assuming that Chen's (2012) 3% ratio for the largest cities underestimates the national rent-price ratio, we take a simple approach and assume a 4% national average rent-price ratio.
The CUHS only began reporting quantities and values for gases and transportation fuels in 2008.
In the CUHS data, we indeed observe rather large variations across regions and years.