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When tested for grade level reading fluency, Jerry read 118 CWPM with one IWPM on passage one and 124 WCPM with zero IWPM on passage two.
RRI typically involves a reader practicing a passage for three to four 1-min timings until he/she meets a predetermined criterion (e.g., 90 CWPM).
RFBA is a 1-minute assessment of oral reading fluency that establishes a student's reading rate through CWPM. Three passages are administered and the average score computed.
Therefore, for this study, the first of three grade 1 RTI criteria, set benchmark, was a WLPB-R standard score at or above 95 (37th %ile) on both the Word Attack and Passage Comprehension subtests in English and a raw score of at least 40 CWPM on an appropriate DIBELS ORF passage at the end of the intervention year (grade 1).
The participant read the story for 1 min to determine the number of CWPM and IWPM.
In the current investigation, the experimenter created individual goals based on an average of the two highest probes from the previous phase, and systematically changed each student's CWPM criteria over multiple phases throughout the study.
Criteria for exit from the intervention were preestablished as (a) obtaining a passing score (five or more words read correctly out of eight) on the screening portion of the TPRI, (b) median-score performance on the TORF above 55 CWPM on a second-grade level passage, with fewer than five errors, and (c) a score of 50 CWPM on second-grade fluency progress-monitoring sessions for at least 3 consecutive weeks.
Oral reading fluency criteria ranged from 75 (Tam et al., 2006) to 200 (Selfridge & Kostewicz, 2011; Polk & Miller, 1994) words (WPM) and correct words per minute (CWPM).
Once participants exhibited sufficient decoding skills, they needed to score either at risk (0-7 cwpm) or some risk (8-19 cwpm) on the ORF assessment.
Those in PDF/GR intervention showed daily gains of .35 correct words per minute (cwpm), whereas participants in the PDF/EC intervention showed daily gains of .29 cwpm.
Reading Text Orally Oral Reading 4.5 (open with CWPM) Fluency 5 Task 10.
This number is then multiplied by 60 and results in a correct-words-per-minute (CWPM) metric.
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