CYDFChina Youth Development Foundation
CYDFCornerstone Youth Development Fund (Rochester, MI)
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A further example occurred in 1993 when the CYDF entered into barter contracts using karaoke machines donated by the Dutch electronics company Philips.
The final example concerns the CYDF's handling of the sensitive issue of educational deprivation among poor rural children.
Given that the dual management system puts NGOs under the direct supervision of their "professional management units", at this point one might think that for an NGO to get round some minor state regulations is one thing, but to evade the control of its professional management unit is another thing, especially in the case of an NGO like the CYDF which came into existence only because its professional management unit used its own resources to launch it.
The various studies of the CYDF have all concluded that an important factor behind its success is that it has a very enlightened professional management unit which has allowed it to conduct its own business with minimal interference.
Not only was the Supervisory Office created at the suggestion of the CYDF, but it was also hosted in the CYDF's office rather than the office of the Youth League.
As soon as it was set up, the CYDF asked the Central Committee for permission to take advantage of the Youth League's organisational resources to raise funds.
To counter the challenge to its ownership of Project Hope from the Youth League's local branches, the CYDF promoted the establishment of local Project Hope funds to be managed by specialised offices separate from local Youth League committees.
Throughout the CYDF's wrestling with local Youth League committees for control over Project Hope, the Central Committee consistently took the side of the CYDF rather than that of the local committees.
So far we can see that the relationship between the CYDF and the Youth League's Central Committee is hardly one in which the professional management agency dominates the NGO, denying it its autonomy.
Should this happen, it would not be the first time that the CYDF has "played a trick" on the Central Committee.
From the CYDF's experience we can see that Chinese NGOs indeed face many restrictions on their autonomy.
Xu Yongguang once described the CYDF as an NGO "of high birth".