CZARACoastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments of 1990
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CZARA required EPA to publish (and periodically revise thereafter), in consultation with NOAA, the U.S.
Significantly, the CZARA runoff program defines "management measures" not in the fuzzy "Best Management Practice" language of CWA sections 208 and 319, but in the language of technology-based requirements for point sources.(587) State management measures must be based on measures identified in guidance issued by EPA and NOAA.(588) This feature may sharpen the teeth of the CZARA mandate.
(587) CZARA provides as follows: For purposes of this subsection, the term "management measures" means economically achievable measures for the control of the addition of pollutants from existing and new categories and classes of nonpoint sources of pollution, which reflect the greatest degree of pollutant reduction achievable through the application of the best available nonpoint pollution control practices, technologies, processes, siting criteria, operating methods, or other alternatives.
CZARA requires that states and territories with approved coastal zone management programs (see Figure 1) submit Coastal Nonpoint Pollution Control Programs (coastal nonpoint programs) to the U.S.
The coastal nonpoint programs required by CZARA, although building on existing programs, are not intended to represent "business as usual" for addressing nonpoint pollution, Rather, CZARA provides an innovative approach to controlling nonpoint pollution.
Finally, CZARA requires insurance, in the form of state enforceable policies and mechanisms, that both the technology-based and additional nonpoint source controls are fully implemented.
The second document, "Coastal Nonpoint Pollution Control Program--Program Development and Approval Guidance" was developed by EPA and NOAA as a road map for states to develop the coastal nonpoint programs required by CZARA in a timely and resource-efficient manner.
Congress has authorized $12 million a year for states' development and implementation of the CZARA requirements.