Transforming growth factor-beta levels in synovial fluid of osteoarthritis with or without calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals.
A new look at the hypomagnesemia associated with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease.
Idiopathic calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate
(CPPD) crystal deposition disease in a young male patient: a case report.
Rada, "Pseudogout-associated inflammatory calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate
microcrystals induce formation of neutrophil extracellular traps," Journal of Immunology, vol.
Nagashima, "Tumourous deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate
crystals in the wrist.
Falsetti et al., "Diagnosis of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate
crystal deposition disease: ultrasonographic criteria proposed," Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol.
In the 1960s, McCarty et al (12,13) discovered new crystals in the synovial fluid, which were calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate
. These were linear or punctuate deposits associated with certain diseases, such as chondrocalcinosis, pseudogout, and pyrophosphate arthropathies.
Psendogout: Similar to gout; however, the crystals in the synovial fluid are composed of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate
and not uric acid.
Doherty, "Synovial fluid calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate
crystals and alizarin red positivity: analysis of3000 samples," British Journal of Rheumatology, vol.
Carpal tunnel syndrome associated with mixed calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate
and apatite crystal deposition in tendon synovial sheath.
Such substances include calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate
(CPPD), which causes pseudogout, hemoglobin breakdown product, cholesterol, hydroxyapatite, and pieces of broken glass from the cover slip.
Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate
(CPPD) crystals show the diagnostic positive birefringence (Figure 2, D and H) observed in this lesion. They are associated with crystal deposition disease, called chondrocalcinosis articularis.