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Likewise, the calcium-signaling proteins related to calmodulin-dependent proteins (CaMK) that belongs to a large family of serine/threonine kinases, where CaMKs are activated by calmodulin-calcium complex also showed similarity.
In the present study, we sought to determine whether WXKL and KN93 decrease cardiac hypertrophy and arrhythmia by regulating the CaMK II signal transduction pathway.
Zhang, "Naringin enhances CaMK II activity and improves long-term memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease," International Journal of Molecular Science, vol.
The Ca2+ ions, combined with calmodulin, activate several second-messengers, among them the Ca2+/calmodulin(CaM)-dependent protein kinase (CaMK), which is responsible both for increasing the AMPA receptor sensibility to glutamate and for causing the translocation of other AMPA receptors to the membrane.
It does this through the action of molecules inside the cell -- called CaMK and MMP -- that act like molecular scissors, cutting a SIRP-alpha protein in half so that it can float freely away from the cell.
(170) In both cases the resulting increase of intracellular [Ca.sup.2+] would lead to tyrosine phosphorylation of the proteins necessary for hyperactivation through CAMK and PTK.
NPY infusion into the CeA produced anxiety-reducing (i.e., anxiolytic) effects and decreased alcohol intake in P rats, most likely by leading to increased CaMK IV-dependent CREB phosphorylation in the CeA (Pandey et al.
PCBs or vehicle (DMSO at 1:1000 dilution) was added to the culture medium for 48 hr beginning at 7 DIV; in a subset of cultures, a CaMK kinase inhibitor (STO-609, 5 [micro]M) or a MEK inhibitor (U0126, 10 [micro]M) was also added to the medium during the same period.
A team at University of Texas, Dallas, and Duke University, Durham, N.C., developed transgenic mice that produced a surplus of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, or CaMK. The enzyme helps trigger changes in muscle cells like those that follow intense exercise (Science 296:349-52, 2002).
Previous studies have shown that Ang II increases calcium influx, which by interacting with calmodulin increases calcium/calmodulin kinase II (CaMK II) activity in rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells (VSMC).
It has to be noted that the dissection of and differentiation between the signaling events involved--CLOCK/BMAL1 E-box-mediated pathway versus acutely regulated second messenger-dependent pathways that are dependent on cAMP/PKA or diacylglycerol (DAG)/calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CamK)--are rather difficult in vivo.
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- CaMK IV
- CaMK-II alpha subunit
- CaMK-II delta subunit
- CaMK-II subunit alpha
- CaMK-II subunit beta
- CaMK-II subunit delta
- CaMK-II subunit gamma
- CaMK-like CREB kinase III
- CaMKI delta
- CaMKI gamma